Sea Slug


Do you know the creature called “sea slug”?
Some people may have heard of it as a mysterious creature that has become a topic of conversation.
It has become popular because of its colorful appearance and distinctive body shape.
The colorful hues are truly beautiful and it is also called the “jewel of the sea”.
What kind of creature do you think sea slugs belong to?
Actually, they belong to the “snail” family.
However, it is hard to believe because there is no shell.
Many species of sea slugs have degraded shells, but some species still carry shells on their backs.
What other ecology is hidden?
Let’s explore sea slugs together!



~ Basic information. ~


Largest species Melibe japonica  Length : about 40-50cm.
Smallest species Vayssierea felis Length : about 3-5mm.

Sea slugs are distributed in a wide range of waters around the world.
Specifically, many species inhabit the seabed in shallow waters.

How many species of sea slugs do you think exist?
Actually, about 3,000 species of sea slugs have been discovered so far.
Just looking at this number makes it feel like there are quite a lot, but there are still many undiscovered species.
It is estimated that there are about 5,000 species in total.
Since new species are being discovered one after another, there is a good chance that they will reach 5,000 species.

Although sea slugs have many species, they can be divided into nine major types.
Let me introduce the characteristics of each type in detail.

They do not have the distinctive tentacles of sea slugs.
Many species still have shells on their bodies.
They are a highly diverse group that burrows in sand or swims in the sea.


This type of sea slug uses disposable teeth called radula to eat seaweed.
This type of sea slug does not just eat seaweed.
They make holes in the cell walls of seaweed and suck out the cells inside.
After using their teeth, they store them in a bag inside their body instead of throwing them away.
The Chinese character “fukuro” is used because they have a bag specialized for teeth.


It is characterized by releasing a purple liquid when stimulated.
By releasing this liquid, they surprise their predators and escape.
Some species do not have anything that can act as a shield, so they are called Aplysiomorpha.


It is characterized by carrying a shell on its back.
It is carnivorous and feeds on clams. Previously, it was grouped with Pleurobranchomorpha under the name Notaspidea.


Many species have degraded shells and instead have a large mantle shield on their back.
They do not have gills or tentacles on their back membrane, and the gills are hidden between the mantle shield and the foot.
They are carnivorous and eat sea squirts, clams, starfish, and dead animals.


It is characterized by having two tentacles and gill-like structures that resemble petals.
It includes many representative species such as the “Festive sea slug” and “Verconia nivalis” that are well-known among sea slugs.


It is characterized by having spiky protrusions on its back.
These protrusions are called “mino”.
They are often found near their food source, which is usually a cnidarian.
Some species have poison in their mino, so you need to be careful.


It is characterized by having longitudinal folds on its back.
Since they often burrow in the sand during the day, they may not be familiar to many people.


It is characterized by having protrusions on its back and sides.
Its body features are similar to Aeolidina.
To distinguish them, look at the base of the tentacles.
Dendronotina has a sheath-like shape at the base of the tentacles, so you can notice the difference.


I introduced the characteristics of the nine types of sea slugs.
Even if they belong to different types, many species look similar, so it seems difficult to distinguish them.

How do sea slugs reproduce?
The body of sea slugs is made up of hermaphrodites.
This may be an unfamiliar term.

Hermaphrodites are organisms that have both male and female functions in one body.
However, even if both functions are present, self-fertilization is not possible.
By meeting another of the same species, they can mate and fertilize each other’s eggs.

When sea slugs lay eggs, they lay egg masses wrapped in agar-like substances that spiral around.
They can lay thousands of eggs at once.

A pet that falls in love with its beauty.

When keeping rare animals as pets, it is necessary to follow the laws established by each country.
In this issue, we will discuss whether it is possible to keep a sea slug at home in Japan.

Sea slugs are very attractive creatures with colorful and unique appearances.
Some people may want to keep them as pets.

Sea slugs can be kept as pets for observation purposes.
However, it is difficult to keep them because it is not known what they eat.
Even if they belong to the same species, they do not necessarily eat the same food because there are individual differences in food preferences.
If they cannot find food, they will die.

Understanding that keeping sea slugs is not easy, let’s look up how to keep them!
Please consider whether you can prepare an environment for them.

What types of sea slugs can be bred?

Sea slugs can be purchased at pet shops or online for around 1,000 to 2,000 yen.
Here are some of the sea slug species that can be kept as pets.

・Willan’s chromodoris.
・Gymnodoris alba.
・Magnificent chromodoris.
・Spanish Dancer.
・Melibe pilosa.
・Serpent pteraeolidia.
・Anna’s Chromodoris.
・Plocamopherus tilesii.

If you are going to get a sea slug, it is recommended that you actually go to a pet shop.
This is because you can ask the person in charge of caring for the sea slugs about how to keep them.
For example, ask about what they eat if you are unsure.
It is also a good idea to check if the sea slug is healthy before getting it.

What should I feed them?

The most difficult part of keeping sea slugs is understanding what they eat. Food preferences vary not only by species but also by individual. There is no artificial food specifically for sea slugs, so you need to obtain the following:

・Sea anemones.
・Brine shrimp.
・Jellyfish tentacles.
・Other sea slugs.
・Sea squirts.
・Dead animals.

Even if you can obtain food, you don’t know if the sea slug you are keeping will eat it.

One possibility is to get a sea slug from a pet shop that knows what it eats. Although it is still difficult to keep them, it is possible.

About the breeding environment.

Depending on the type of sea slug, the body grows larger.
If the aquarium is too small, it can cause stress.
Research the type of sea slug you want to keep and choose a slightly larger aquarium.

Seawater is essential for sea slugs.
Use a hydrometer to adjust the salt concentration suitable for sea slugs.

・Artificial seawater.
Use artificial seawater instead of seawater.

Sea slugs are not strong against cold weather, so install a heater in winter to maintain an appropriate temperature.

・Water thermometer.
It is not good if the water temperature is too high or too low.
Use a water thermometer to check if you are maintaining the appropriate temperature for sea slugs.

There are three things to keep in mind when breeding!

1)Let’s manage the temperature well.
The ideal temperature for sea slugs is around 20℃.
If the water temperature becomes about 30℃ too high, the lifespan will be shortened.
In addition, since they are not accustomed to the cold weather in winter, it is necessary to attach a heater.

2)Check if you can mix them in advance.
When keeping them in the same aquarium as other than sea slugs, it is necessary to check.
This is because fish with strong personalities may attack sea slugs.
Even among sea slugs, there are species that eat each other, so be careful.

3)Understand that there is a possibility of dying immediately.
Sea slugs have individual differences, and you do not know which food is suitable until you try it.
Until the appropriate food is identified, it will refuse to eat.
If refusal continues, the body gradually becomes smaller and eventually dies.
Please remember that keeping sea slugs is very difficult.



Sea slug’s Q&A.

Where does the sea slugs get their name?

Although it is called “Sea slug” in English, it is actually called “umiushi” in Japanese.
This time, we will introduce why it is called “umiushi” in Japanese.

The name “umiushi” comes from its appearance of having antennae like cow horns.
It can also be written as “umiushi” in kanji, but it can also be mistaken for other creatures.
That creature is the dugong or manatee.
The reason for this misunderstanding is that dugongs and manatees are included in the same type called Sirenia.
Certainly, it seems to be misunderstood because the same kanji is used.

In addition, in the Ogasawara Islands, they sometimes call umiushi “umineko”.
This is because the antennae looked like cat ears instead of cow horns.

What is umiushi called overseas?
We will introduce three languages: English, Latin, and German.

・In English, it is called “sea slug”, which means “sea slug”.

・In Latin, it is called “Dorididae”.
It was named after the goddess Doris, who was the mother of Nereids, sea fairies in Greek mythology.

・In German, it is called “Sternchnecke”, which means “star snail”.

It’s interesting that there are differences in how they are called depending on the country.
It’s also a good idea to look up how they are called overseas as well as how they are called in Japan.

Why do sea slugs live there?

The habitat of sea slugs varies depending on the type.
It is relatively easy to find them in rocky areas with good tidal flow in shallow waters.
They may also hide in sandy areas or seaweed.

Why are there differences in their habitats?
The reason is that the characteristics of sea slugs differ depending on the type.

For example, sea slugs that eat brown algae are found in sunny shallow areas.
This is because they use the brown algae they eat for photosynthesis.
They choose a place to live according to their own body characteristics.


What does sea slug eat?

Sea slugs eat different things depending on the type and individual differences.
Here are some examples of what they eat.

・Sea anemones.
・Brine shrimp.
・Jellyfish tentacles.
・Other sea slugs.
・Sea squirts.
・Dead animals.

Wild sea slugs eat what suits them from these foods.
None of these foods are generally sold.
If you want to keep sea slugs, you also need to find a way to get food.

Are sea slugs poisonous?

Some types of sea slugs have poison.
However, sea slugs do not have poison from birth.
So how do they get the poison?

They accumulate capsules of poison in their bodies by eating creatures called cnidarians that have poison.
Cnidarians are creatures such as jellyfish and anemones.
This is called “kleptocnidae”.

The reason why sea slugs do kleptocnidae is to protect themselves from predators.
They concentrate the poison of the creature they ate and make a stronger poison to attack their enemies.
Although they look cute, their attack method is terrible.

The most dangerous sea slug with poison is the “Sea swallow”.
It has a beautiful blue color and wing-like projections, and is also called “Blue Dragon” because of its appearance.
Because of its mysterious appearance, you may feel like touching it.


The reason why Sea swallow is said to be dangerous is that it likes to eat Portuguese Man O’ War, a jellyfish famous for its strong poison.
If you touch Sea swallow, you will be stung by a concentrated version of Portuguese Man O’ War’s poison.
When stung, you will experience symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, severe pain, and allergic dermatitis.
In addition, if you are stung multiple times, you may experience anaphylactic shock and die in the worst case.

We have learned that there are dangerous sea slugs.
Even if you find a beautiful sea slug, be careful not to touch it.
As the saying goes, “there are thorns on beautiful things,” so attractive creatures require attention.

Is it true that sea slugs photosynthesize?

When it comes to photosynthesis, we think of plants, but we don’t usually associate animals with photosynthesis.
That’s because it has long been thought that animals do not photosynthesize.
The sea slug Elysia chlorotica changed that fixed idea.

Elysia chlorotica is a herbivorous sea slug that likes to eat algae.
I don’t know if it’s because of the food, but it looks like a leaf.


The characteristic of Elysia chlorotica is that it steals chloroplasts necessary for photosynthesis instead of just eating algae.
With chloroplasts, they can live on photosynthesis alone for long periods of time.
This is called “kleptoplasty”.

It was surprising that animals can also photosynthesize.
Sea slugs are still mysterious creatures. It’s exciting to think that more mysteries will be solved in the future.

How does sea slug find a mate?

Sea slugs can mate by pairing with another sea slug of the same species.
However, it is difficult for them to find the same species in the vast ocean.
How do they find each other?

In fact, sea slugs leave mucus on the path they have taken.
The mucus contains a unique pheromone for sea slugs.
Since the composition of the pheromone is different depending on the type of sea slug, other sea slugs do not react.
Sea slugs of the same species can feel the pheromone and follow the trail to mate.

There is one problem with pheromones.
That is, if they are sea slugs belonging to the same group, the pheromones are similar and can be mistaken for each other.
When they meet their counterparts, they will mingle without realizing the mistake.

Is it possible for different types of sea slugs to mate and have offspring?

The possibility of having offspring is extremely low.
Even if offspring are born, they cannot reproduce because they lack reproductive ability.
It turns out that pheromones are not universal even though their function is excellent.


How long is the lifespan of a sea slug?

The lifespan of sea slugs is relatively short, with many species living for about a year.
In the case of species with short lifespans, they can only live for a few weeks.
On the other hand, some species that live longer can live for more than three years.

In addition, the lifespan of sea slugs is also affected by their living environment.
The typical living environment is water temperature.
Just adjusting the water temperature suitable for sea slugs can greatly change their lifespan.
If you keep sea slugs as pets, be aware of creating a natural living environment.


Where can I actually see sea slugs?

Some people may want to see sea slugs in person.
Here are two ways to see sea slugs in Japan.

1)Go see the exhibit at an aquarium.
There are also aquariums that exhibit sea slugs.
Many of them exhibit them only during the summer.
Why are there so many limited-time exhibits?
That’s because even aquariums that specialize in marine life find it difficult to keep sea slugs.

When you go to see sea slug exhibits, aim for the beginning of the period.
The reason is that sea slug exhibits sometimes end early.
Sea slugs may die during the exhibit.
If you want to see many types of sea slugs, it is recommended that you go early.

【Aquariums with high exhibit frequency.】
・Kaiyukan Satellite Gallery “Sea Slug minimini Aquarium”.
・Ioworld Kagoshima Aquarium “Sea Slug Research Institute”.

【Past summer limited-time exhibits.】
・Toba Aquarium “Strange Creature Laboratory”.
・Nagasaki Penguin Aquarium “Sea Slug”.
・Sunshine Aquarium “Mysterious Water Tank of Living Things”.
・Shin-Enoshima Aquarium “Sagami Bay Kids Water Tank”.
・Shinagawa Aquarium “Exhibition of Sea Slugs and Their Friends, Did You Know They Are Related to Snails?”

2)Participate in diving tours.
For those who want to see sea slugs in their natural state, one way is to try diving.
In fact, there are diving tours for observing sea slugs.
Divers are guided to places where many sea slugs live, so they are sure to find them.
Depending on the season and weather, you may be able to discover as many as 30 types of sea slugs in a single day.
You may even encounter rare or new species.




Type of sea slug.

・Acteon eloiseae.
・Japonactaeon sieboldii.

・Pupa coccinata.
・Pupa kirki.
・Pupa nitidula.
・Pupa solidula.
・Pupa strigosa.
・Pupa sulcata.

・Red-lined bubble snail.
・Bullina nobilis.
・Bullina oblonga
・Bullina vitrea.

・Micromelo guamensis.
・Micromelo guamensis.

・Bubble snail.
・Aplustrum amplustre.
・Hydatina physis.
・Hydatina zonata.

・Colpodaspis pusilla.
・Colpodaspis sp. 1
・Colpodaspis sp. 2
・Colpodaspis thompsoni.

・Aglaja ocelligera.
・Spinoaglaja orientalis.
・Aglaja tricolorata.

・Philine angasi.
・Philine aperta.
・Philine argentata.
・Philine elegans.
・Philine pruinosa.
・Philine trapezia.
・Philine scabra.
・Philine trapezia.

・Retusa concentrica
・Retusa succincta.

・Mnestia girardi.

・Ceratophyllidia africana.
・Chelidonura amoena.
・Chelidonura berolina.
・Chelidonura castanea.
・Chelidonura electra.
・Chelidonura flavolobata.
・Biuve fulvipunctata.
・Chelidonura hirundinina.
・Mariaglaja inornata.
・Chelidonura livida.
・Chelidonura pallida.
・Chelidonura philinopsis.
・Pelagella albopunctata.
・Mariaglaja tsurugensis.
・Chelidonura sp.1
・Mariaglaja tsurugensis.
・Chelidonura varians.

・Melanochlamys cylindrica.
・Melanochlamys ezoensis.

・Nakamigawaia felis.
・Nakamigawaia nakanoae.

・Odontoglaja guamensis.

・Philinopsis aeci.
・Philinopsis depicta.
・Tubulophilinopsis gardineri.
・Philinopsis gigliolii.
・Tubulophilinopsis lineolata.
・Tubulophilinopsis pilsbryi.
・Tubulophilinopsis reticulata.
・Philinopsis speciosa.
・Philinopsis taronga.

・Gastropteron bicornutum.
・Gastropteron chacmol.
・Gastropteron pacificum.
・Gastropteron rubrum.
・Gastropteron sp. 3
・Gastropterid sp. 1
・Sagaminopteron psychedelicum.

・Sagaminopteron bilealbum.
・Sagaminopteron nigropunctatum.
・Sagaminopteron ornatum.
・Sagaminopteron psychedelicum.

・Siphopteron brunneomarginatum.
・Siphopteron citrinum.
・Siphopteron flavum.
・Siphopteron fuscum.
・Siphopteron ladrones.
・Siphopteron michaeli.
・Siphopteron nigromarginatum.
・Siphopteron pohnpei.
・Siphopteron quadrispinosum.
・Siphopteron tigrinum.

・Atys caribaeus.
・Atys caribaeus.
・Aliculastrum cylindricum.
・Atys caribaeus.
・Atys multistriatus.
・Atys naucum.
・Atys semistriata.

・Diniatys dentifer.
・Thecacera boyla.

・Japanese bubble snail.

・Haminoea antillarum.
・Haminoea cyanomarginata.
・Haminoea cymbalum.
・Haminoea elegans.
・Haminoea hydatis.
・Haminoea japonica.
・Haloa natalensis.
・Haminoea ovalis.

・Liloa mongii.

・Phanerophthalmus luteus.

・Smaragdinella calyculata.

・Bulla arabica.
・Bulla gouldiana.
・Bulla peasiana.
・Bulla orientalis.
・Bulla quoyii.
・Bulla vernicosa.

・Hamineobulla kawamurai.

・Metaruncina nhatrangensis.
・Metaruncina setoensis.

・Runcinida elioti.

・Ilbia mariana.

・Ascobulla fischeri.
・Ascobulla japonica.

・Volvatella angeliniana.
・Volvatella ayakii.
・Volvatella kawamurai.
・Volvatella viridis.

・Julia exquisita.
・Julia zebra.

・Berthelinia caribbea.
・Berthelinia limax.

・Lobiger serradifalci.
・Lobiger viridis.
・Lobiger viridis.

・Oxynoe antillarum.
・Oxynoe kabirensis.
・Oxynoe olivacea.
・Oxynoe viridis.

・Plakobranchus ocellatus.

・Bosellia mimetica.
・Bosellia sp. 1

・Elysia amakusana.
・Elysia atroviridis.
・Elysia australis.
・Elysia bangtawaensis.
・Elysia bennettae.
・Elysia chlorotica.
・Elysia clarki.
・Elysia crispata.
・Elysia diomedea.
・Elysia obtusa.
・Elysia flavomacula.
・Elysia furvacauda.
・Elysia hamatanii.
・Elysia leucolegnote.
・Elysia lobata.
・Elysia maoria.
・Elysia mercieri.
・Elysia nealae.
・Elysia nigrocapitata.
・Elysia marginata.
・Elysia pratensis.
・Elysia pusilla.
・Elysia rufescens.
・Elysia serca.
・Elysia setoensis.
・Elysia asbecki.
・Elysia sp. 2.
・Elysia nigropunctata.
・Elysia sp.16.
・Elysia sp. 6.
・Elysia sp. 5.
・Elysia sp. 1.
・Elysia degeneri.
・Elysia subornata.
・Elysia thompsoni.
・Elysia timida.
・Elysia tomentosa.
・Elysia trilobata.
・Elysia trisinuata.
・Elysia viridis.
・Elysia yaeyamana.

・Elysia pusilla.

・Thuridilla albopustulosa.
・Thuridilla bayeri.
・Thuridilla carlsoni.
・Thuridilla decorata.
・Thuridilla flavomaculata.
・Thuridilla gracilis.
・Thuridilla hoffae.
・Thuridilla indopacifica.
・Thuridilla kathae.
・Thuridilla lineolata.
・Thuridilla livida.
・Thuridilla moebii.
・Thuridilla multimarginata.
・Thuridilla neona.
・Thuridilla splendens.
・Thuridilla undula.
・Thuridilla vataae.

・Cyerce elegans.
・Cyerce kikutarobabai.
・Coerce nigra.
・Cyerce nigricans.
・Cyerce sp. 3.
・Cyerce bourbonica.
・Cyerce sp. 5.
・Mourgona sp. 1.
・Cyerce sp. 6.

・Mourgona osumi.

・Polybranchia orientalis.

・Sohgenia palauensis.
・Sohgenia sp. 1.

・Costasiella formicaria.
・Costasiella fridae.
・Costasiella kuroshimae.
・Costasiella paweli.
・Costasiella sp. 2.
・Costasiella sp. 1.
・Costasiella usagi.

・Ercolania boodleae.
・Ercolania coerulea.
・Ercolania sp. 2.
・Stiliger sp. 8.
・Ercolania subviridis.

・Placida kevinleei.
・Placida babai.

・Stiliger aureomarginatus.
・Stiliger berghi.
・Stiliger ornatus.
・Stiliger pusillus.

・Alderia modesta.

・Aplysiopsis minor.
・Aplysiopsis nigra.
・Aplysiopsis orientalis.
・Aplysiopsis toyamana.

・Hermaea noto.
・Hermaea wrangeliae.
・Hermaea sp. 2.
・Hermaea sp. 4.
・Hermaea zosterae.

・California sea slug.
・Aplysia argus.
・Aplysia extraordinaria.
・Aplysia gigantea.
・Aplysia juliana.
・Sea hare.
・Aplysia oculifera.
・Aplysia japonica.
・Aplysia pulmonica.
・Aplysia sagamiana.
・Aplysia sydneyensis.

・Bursatella leachii.

・Dolabella auricularia.

・Dolabrifera dolabrifera.

・Notarchus indicus.

・Petalifera petalifera.
・Petalifera punctulata.
・Petalifera ramosa.

・Phyllaplysia lafonti.

・Stylocheilus longicauda.
・Stylocheilus rufus.
・Stylocheilus striatus.

・Syphonota geographica.

・Umbraculum umbraculum.

・Tylodina sp. 1.

・Berthella californica.
・Berthella citrina.
・Berthella delicata.
・Berthella martensi.
・Berthella stellata.

・Euselenops luniceps.

・Pleurobranchaea brockii.
・Pleurobranchaea japonica.

・Pleurobranchus albiguttatus.
・Pleurobranchus forskalii.
・Pleurobranchus grandis.
・Pleurobranchus mamillatus.
・Pleurobranchus hirasei.
・Pleurobranchus weberi.

・Berthellina delicata.
・Berthella caledonica.

・Ancula gibbosa.
・Ancula kariyana.

・Goniodoridella savignyi.

・Pelagella castanea.
・Pelagella felis.
・Pelagella joubini.

・Okenia babai.
・Okenia barnardi.
・Okenia brunneomaculata.
・Okenia distincta.
・Okenia echinata.
・Okenia hallucigenia.
・Okenia hiroi.
・Okenia japonica.
・Okenia kendi.
・Okenia kondoi.
・Okenia lambat.
・Okenia liklik.
・Okenia nakamotoensis.
・Okenia pellucida.
・Okenia pilosa.
・Okenia plana.
・Okenia purpureolineata.
・Okenia rhinorma.
・Okenia sp.12.
・Okenia virginiae.

・Trapania armilla.
・Trapania aurata.
・Trapania caerulea.
・Trapania darvelli.
・Trapania brunnea.
・Trapania gibbera.
・Trapania japonica.
・Trapania miltabrancha.
・Trapania naeva.
・Trapania reticulata.
・Trapania safricornia.
・Trapania toddi.
・Trapania tora.
・Trapania vitta.

・Acanthodoris pilosa.

・Adalaria proxima.

・Diaphorodoris mitsuii.

・Polycera abei.
・Palio amakusana.
・Polycera fujitai.
・Polycera hedgpethi.
・Polycera japonica.
・Polycera risbeci.
・Polycera sp. 1.
・Polycera sp.14.

・Thecacera boyla.
・Thecacera pacifica.
・Thecacera pennigera.
・Thecacera picta.
・Thecacera sp. 1.
・Thecacera sp. 2.

・Crimora lutea.

・Kaloplocamus acutus.
・Kaloplocamus dokte.
・Kaloplocamus peludo.
・Kaloplocamus ramosus.

・Limacia ornata.

・Plocamopherus ceylonicus.
・Plocamopherus imperialis.
・Plocamopherus lemur.
・Plocamopherus maculatus.
・Plocamopherus maculatus.
・Plocamopherus margaritae.
・Plocamopherus ocellatus.
・Plocamopherus pecoso.
・Plocamopherus tilesii.

・Triopha modesta.

・Nembrotha aurea.
・Nembrotha chamberlaini.
・Nembrotha cristata.
・Nembrotha kubaryana.
・Nembrotha lineolata.
・Nembrotha livingstonei.
・Nembrotha megalocera.
・Nembrotha milleri.
・Nembrotha mullineri.
・Nembrotha purpureolineata..
・Nembrotha rosannulata.
・Nembrotha rutilans.
・Nembrotha sp. 1.
・Nembrotha yonowae.

・Roboastra gracilis.
・Tyrannodoris luteolineata.

・Tambja abdere.
・Tambja affinis.
・Tambja amakusana.
・Tambja blacki.
・Tambja eliora.
・Tambja gabrielae.
・Tambja limaciformes.
・Tambja morosa.
・Tambja olivaria.
・Tambja sagamiana.
・Tambja sp. 2.
・Tyrannodoris sp. 1.
・Tambja tentaculata.
・Tambja tenuilineata.
・Tambja verconis.
・Tambja victoriae.
・Tambja zulu.

・Kalinga ornata.

・Gymnodoris alba.
・Gymnodoris amakusana.
・Gymnodoris aurita.
・Gymnodoris ceylonica.
・Gymnodoris citrina.
・Gymnodoris inornata.
・Gymnodoris nigricolor.
・Gymnodoris okinawae.
・Gymnodoris impudica.
・Gymnodoris sp. 1.
・Gymnodoris sp. 4.
・Gymnodoris striata.
・Gymnodoris subflava.
・Gymnodoris subornata.

・Aegires citrinus.
・Aegires exeches.
・Aegires flores.
・Aegires incusus.
・Aegires lemoncello.
・Aegires malinus.
・Aegires petalis.
・Aegires villosus.

・Notodoris citrina.
・Notodoris gardineri.
・Notodoris minor.
・Notodoris serenae.

・Vayssierea felis.

・Spanish dancer.

・Actinocyclus papillatus.
・Actinocyclus verrucosus.

・Hallaxa albopunctata.
・Hallaxa cryptica.
・Hallaxa elongata.
・Hallaxa fuscescens.
・Hallaxa hileenae.
・Hallaxa iju.
・Hallaxa indecora.
・Hallaxa paulinae.

・Aldisa albatrossae.
・Aldisa andersoni.
・Aldisa cooperi.
・Aldisa erwinkoehleri.
・Aldisa pikokai.
・Aldisa fragaria.
・Aldisa zavorensis
・Aldisa williamsi.

・Archidoris sugashimae.
・Archidoris tricolor.

・Asteronotus cespitosus.
・Asteronotus hepaticus.
・Asteronotus mimeticus.
・Asteronotus spongicolus.

・Atagema echinata.
・Atagema intecta.
・Atagema spongiosa.

・Diaulula odonoghuei.

・Discodoris boholiensis.
・Discodoris coerulescens.
・Discodoris lilacina.
・Discodoris pardalis.
・Discodoris cebuensis.
・Discodoris sp. 1.
・Discodoris sp. 4.

・Doriopsis granulosa.
・Doriopsis pecten.

・Halgerda albocristata.
・Halgerda aurantiomaculata.
・Halgerda bacalusia.
・Halgerda batangas.
・Halgerda brunneomaculata.
・Halgerda carlsoni.
・Halgerda dalanghita.
・Halgerda diaphana.
・Halgerda elegans.
・Halgerda formosa.
・Halgerda guahan.
・Halgerda johnsonorum.
・Halgerda malesso.
・Halgerda okinawa.
・Halgerda onna.
・Halgerda paliensis.
・Halgerda punctata.
・Halgerda stricklandi.
・Halgerda terramtuentis.
・Halgerda tessellata.
・Halgerda wasinensis.
・Halgerda willeyi.

・Homoiodoris japonica.

・Carminodoris armata.
・Carminodoris bifurcata.
・Carminodoris grandiflora.

・Jorunna alisonae.
・Jorunna funebris.
・Jorunna pardus.
・Jorunna daoulasi.
・Jorunna parva.
・Jorunna rubescens.
・Jorunna tomentosa.

・Paradoris tsurugensis.

・Peltodoris fellowsi.
・Peltodoris rubra.

・Platydoris cinerobranchiata.
・Platydoris cruenta.
・Platydoris ellioti.
・Platydoris cinereobranchiata.
・Platydoris inframaculata.
・Platydoris sanguinea.
・Platydoris scabra.
・Platydoris tabulata.
・Platydoris ellioti.

・Rostanga arbutus.
・Rostanga cf. bifurcata.
・Rostanga lutescens.
・Rostanga orientalis.
・Rostanga risbeci.
・Rostanga sp. 1.
・Rostanga sp. 2.
・Rostanga sp. 3.

・Sebadoris fragilis.
・Sebadoris nubilosa.

・Sclerodoris apiculata.
・Sclerodoris coriacea.
・Sclerodoris rubicunda.
・Sclerodoris sp. 2.
・Discodorid sp. 3.
・Sclerodoris tuberculata.

・Siraius immonda.

・Thordisa albomacula.
・Thordisa luteola.
・Thordisa oriva.
・Thordisa sanguinea.
・Thordisa tahala.
・Thordisa villosa.

・Geitodoris lutea.

・Taringa halgerda.

・Ardeadoris egretta.

・Cadlina japonica.
・Cadlina luteomarginata.
・Cadlina sagamiensis.

・Cadlinella hirsuta.
・Cadlinella ornatissima.

・Ceratosoma alleni.
・Ceratosoma amoena.
・Ceratosoma brevicaudatum.
・Ceratosoma gracillimum.
・Costasiella sp. 5.
・Ceratosoma miamirana.
・Ceratosoma moloch.
・Ceratosoma palliolatum.
・Ceratosoma sinuatum.
・Ceratosoma sp. 1.
・Ceratosoma tenue.
・Ceratosoma trilobatum.

・Chromodoris africana.
・Chromodoris albonares.
・Chromodoris albopunctata.
・Chromodoris albopustulosa.
・Chromodoris alius.
・Chromodoris annae.
・Chromodoris annulata.
・Chromodoris aspersa.
・Chromodoris aureopurpurea.
・Chromodoris boucheti.
・Chromodoris buchananae.
・Chromodoris burni.
・Chromodoris cazae.
・Chromodoris charlottae.
・Chromodoris coi.
・Chromodoris colemani.
・Chromodoris collingwoodi.
・Chromodoris conchyliata.
・Chromodoris decora.
・Chromodoris dianae.
・Chromodoris elisabethina.
・Chromodoris fidelis.
・Chromodoris galactos.
・Chromodoris geminus.
・Chromodoris geometrica.
・Chromodoris gleniei.
・Chromodoris hamiltoni.
・Chromodoris hintuanensis.
・Chromodoris joshi.
・Chromodoris katoi.
・Chromodoris kuiteri.
・Chromodoris kuniei.
・Chromodoris lekker.
・Chromodoris leopardus.
・Chromodoris lineolata.
・Chromodoris lochi.
・Chromodoris mandapamensis.
・Chromodoris michaeli.
・Chromodoris naiki.
・Chromodoris nona.
・Chromodoris orientals.
・Chromodoris preciosa.
・Chromodoris pruna.
・Chromodoris quadricolor.
・Chromodoris reticulata.
・Goniobranchus roboi.
・Chromodoris rubrocornuta.
・Chromodoris rufomaculata.
・Chromodoris setoensis.
・Goniobranchus sinensis.
・Chromodoris sp.1.
・Chromodoris sp.2.
・Chromodoris sphoni.
・Chromodoris striatella.
・Chromodoris strigata.
・Chromodoris tennentana.
・Goniobranchus tinctorius.
・Chromodoris trimarginata.
・Chromodoris tritios.
・Goniobranchus tumulifera.
・Goniobranchus verrieri.
・Chromodoris vibrata.
・Chromodoris westraliensis.
・Chromodoris willani.

・Durvilledoris lemniscata.
・Mexichromis pusilla.
・Mexichromis similaris.

・Doriprismatica atromarginata.
・Ardeadoris averni.
・Glossodoris cincta.
・Ardeadoris cruenta.
・Glossodoris hikuerensis.
・Glossodoris misakinosibogae.
・Glossodoris buko.
・Ardeadoris poliahu.
・Glossodoris rufomarginata.
・Ardeadoris sp. 1.

・Hypselodoris agassizii.
・Hypselodoris alboterminata.
・Royal hypselodoris.
・Hypselodoris babai.
・Hypselodoris bertschi.
・Hypselodoris bollandi.
・Bullock’s hypselodoris.
・Hypselodoris imperialis.
・Hypselodoris emma.
・Hypselodoris festiva.
・Hypselodoris flavomarginata.
・Hypselodoris iacula.
・Painted nudibranch.
・Hypselodoris insulana.
・Hypselodoris kaname.
・Hypselodoris kanga.
・Hypselodoris krakatoa.
・Hypselodoris decorata.
・Hypselodoris maritima.
・Hypselodoris nigrostriata.
・Hypselodoris peasei.
・Hypselodoris placida.
・Hypselodoris purpureomaculosa.
・Hypselodoris regina.
・Hypselodoris reidi.
・Hypselodoris rudmani.
・Hypselodoris sagamiensis.
・Hypselodoris shimodaensis.
・Hypselodoris violabranchia.
・Hypselodoris whitei.
・Hypselodoris zebrina.
・Hypselodoris zephyra

・Mexichromis mariei.
・Mexichromis macropus.
・Mexichromis mariei.
・Mexichromis multituberculata.

・Verconia alboannulata.
・Ardeadoris angustolutea.
・Noumea catalai.
・Diversidoris crocea.
・Noumea decussata.
・Diversidoris flava.
・Noumea hongkongensis.
・Noumea laboutei.
・Verconia nivalis.
・Verconia norba.
・Verconia purpurea.
・Verconia romeri.
・Verconia simplex.
・Verconia sp. 2.
・Verconia subnivalis.
・Noumea sudanica.
・Noumea varians.
・Verconia verconiforma.

・Mexichromis aurora.
・Mexichromis trilineata.

・Risbecia ghardaqana.
・Risbecia godeffroyana.
・Risbecia imperialis.
・Risbecia pulchella.
・Tryon’s hypselodoris.

・Thorunna africana.
・Thorunna australis.
・Thorunna daniellae.
・Thorunna florens.
・Thorunna furtiva.
・Thorunna halourga.
・Thorunna horologia.
・Thorunna kahuna.
・Thorunna montrouzieri.
・Thorunna punicea.
・Thorunna purpuropedis.
・Thorunna speciosus.

・Dendrodoris albobrunnea.
・Dendrodoris albopurpura.
・Dendrodoris arborescens.
・Dendrodoris atromaculata.
・Dendrodoris carbunculosa.
・Dendrodoris coronata.
・Dendrodoris denisoni.
・Dendrodoris elongata.
・Dendrodoris arborescens.
・Dendrodoris guttata.
・Dendrodoris nigra.
・Dendrodoris sp. 1.
・Dendrodoris tuberculosa.

・Doriopsilla miniata.
・Doriopsilla sp. 1.

・Ceratophyllidia africana.
・Ceratophyllidia sp. 3.
・Ceratophyllidia sp. 2.

・Phyllidia alyta.
・Baba’s Phyllidia.
・Phyllidia carlsonhoffi.
・Phyllidia coelestis.
・Phyllidia elegans.
・Phyllidia exquisita.
・Phyllidia goslineri.
・Guam sea slugs.
・Phyllidia madangensis.
・Phyllidia marindica.
・Phyllidia ocellata.
・Phyllidia picta.
・Phyllidia polkadotsa.
・Phyllidia schupporum.
・Phyllidia scottjohnsoni.
・Phyllidiidae sp. 1.
・Phyllidia tula.
・Phyllidia varicosa.
・Phyllidia willani.
・Phyllidia zebrina.

・Phyllidiella annulata.
・Phyllidiella cooraburrama.
・Phyllidiella granulata.
・Phyllidiella hageni.
・Phyllidiella lizae.
・Phyllidiella meandrina.
・Phyllidiella nigra.
・Phyllidiella pustulosa.
・Phyllidiella rosans.
・Phyllidiella rudmani.
・Phyllidiella zeylanica.

・Phyllidiopsis annae.
・Phyllidiopsis cardinalis.
・Phyllidiopsis dautzenbergi.
・Phyllidiopsis fissurata.
・Phyllidiopsis gemmata.
・Phyllidiopsis krempfi.
・Phyllidiopsis loricata.
・Phyllidiopsis phiphiensis.
・Phyllidiopsis pipeki.
・Phyllidiopsis shireenae.
・Phyllidiopsis sinaiensis.
・Phyllidiopsis sphingis.
・Phyllidiopsis xishaensis.

・Reticulidia fungia.
・Reticulidia halgerda.
・Reticulidia suzanneae.

・Marionia arborescens.
・Marionia cyanobranchiata.
・Marionia distincta.
・Marionia elongoreticula.
・Marionia elongoviridis.
・Marionia hawaiiensis.
・Marionia levis.
・Marionia olivacea.
・Marionia rubra.

・Tritonia bollandi.
・Tritonia diomedea.
・Tritonia festiva.
・Tritonia insulae.
・Tritonia sp. 1.

・Tritoniopsis alba.
・Tritoniopsis elegans.

・Paratritonia lutea.

・Bornella anguilla.
・Bornella hermanni.
・Bornella stellifer.

・Pseudobornella orientalis.

・Marianina rosea.

・Dendronotus primorjensis.
・Dendronotus gracilis.

・Doto albida.
・Doto bella.
・Doto japonica.
・Doto pacifica.
・Doto pita.
・Doto racemosa.
・Doto rosacea.
・Doto sp.26.
・Doto sp. 1.
・Kabeiro sp. 2.
・Doto sp. 4.
・Doto ussi.

・Crosslandia viridis.

・Notobryon bijecurum.
・Notobryon clavigerum.
・Notobryon wardi.

・Scyllaea pelagica.

・Melibe bucephala.
・Melibe digitata.
・Melibe engeli.
・Melibe japonica.
・Melibe megaceras.
・Melibe minuta.
・Melibe mirifica.
・Melibe papillosa.
・Melibe pilosa.
・Melibe viridis.

・Hancockia burni.

・Phylliroe bucephala.

・Lomanotus vermiformis.

・Embletonia gracilis.

・Armina babai.
・Armina cygnea.
・Armina major.
・Armina magna.
・Armina major.
・Armina papillata.
・Armina paucifoliata.
・Armina semperi.
・Armina sp. 2.

・Dermatobranchus albopunctulatus.
・Dermatobranchus albus.
・Dermatobranchus fortunatus.
・Dermatobranchus gonatophora.
・Dermatobranchus nigropunctatus.
・Dermatobranchus ornatus.
・Dermatobranchus otome.
・Dermatobranchus primus.
・Dermatobranchus pustulosus..
・Dermatobranchus rubidus.
・Dermatobranchus semistriatus.
・Dermatobranchus diagonalis.
・Dermatobranchus fasciatus.
・Dermatobranchus sp. 1.
・Dermatobranchus sp. 3.
・Dermatobranchus striatellus.

・Doridomorpha gardineri.

・Madrella gloriosa.
・Madrella ferruginosa.

・Antiopella fusca.
・Janolus indicus.
・Janolus mirabilis.
・Janolus tricellariodes.
・Janolus sp. 2.
・Janolus sp. 7.
・Janolus incrustans.
・Janolus toyamensis.

・Pinufius rebus.

・Dirona pellucida.

・Flabellina athadona.
・Flabellina bicolor.
・Flabellina bilas.
・Flabellina delicata.
・Flabellina exoptata.
・Flabellina macassarana.
・Flabellina marcusorum.
・Flabellina riwo.
・Flabellina rubrolineata.
・Flabellina rubropurpurata.
・Flabellina sp. 1.
・Flabellina sp. 2.
・Flabellina sp. 4.
・Flabellina verrucosa.

・Eubranchus echizenicus.
・Eubranchus inabai.
・Eubranchus leopoldoi.
・Eubranchus mandapamensis.
・Eubranchus mimeticus.
・Eubranchus misakiensis.
・Eubranchus ocellatus.
・Eubranchus sp.28.
・Eubranchus putnami.
・Eubranchus sp.10.
・Eubranchus sp.35.
・Eubranchus sp. 9.
・Eubranchus sp. 5.
・Eubranchus virginalis.

・Eubranchus virginalis.

・Aeolidia papillosa.

・Bulbaeolidia alba.

・Anteaeolidiella takanosimensis.

・Baeolidia japonica.
・Baeolidia palythoae.

・Berghia chaka.

・Cerberilla affinis.
・Cerberilla africana.
・Cerberilla albopunctata.
・Cerberilla asamusiensis.
・Cerberilla sp. 1.
・Cerberilla sp. 2.
・Cerberilla tanna.

・Limenandra fusiformis.
・Limenandra confusa.
・Limenandra rosanae.

・Protaeolidiella atra.
・Protaeolidiella juliae.

・Spurilla major.
・Spurilla braziliana.
・Spurilla salaamica.

・Aeolidiopsis harrietae.
・Aeolidiopsis ransoni.

・Antonietta janthina.

・Babakina indopacifica.

・Caloria indica.
・Caloria militaris.

・Cratena affinis.
・Cratena lineata.
・Cratena simba.
・Cratena sp. 1.
・Cratena sp. 2.

・Facelina bilineata.
・Facelina quadrilineata.
・Facelina rhodopos.
・Facelina sp. 1.

・Favorinus japonicus.
・Favorinus mirabilis.
・Favorinus pacificus.
・Favorinus perfoliatus.
・Favorinus sp. 1.
・Favorinus tsuruganus.

・Glaucus atlanticus..
・Glaucus marginatus.

・Godiva rachelae.
・Godiva sp. 1.

・Hermissenda emurai.

・Herviella affinis.
・Herviella albida.
・Herviella claror.
・Herviella mietta.
・Herviella yatsui.

・Moridilla brockii.

・Phidiana anulifera.
・Phidiana bourailli.
・Phidiana militaris.
・Phidiana salaamica.

・Phyllodesmium briareum.
・Phyllodesmium colemani.
・Phyllodesmium crypticum.
・Phyllodesmium guamensis.
・Phyllodesmium hyalinum.
・Phyllodesmium iriomotense.
・Phyllodesmium jakobsenae.
・Phyllodesmium kabiranum.
・Phyllodesmium koehleri.
・Phyllodesmium lembehensis.
・Phyllodesmium lizerdensis.
・Phyllodesmium longicirrum.
・Phyllodesmium macphersonae.
・Phyllodesmium magnum.
・Phyllodesmium opalescens.
・Phyllodesmium sp. 1.
・Phyllodesmium parangatum.
・Phyllodesmium pecten.
・Phyllodesmium poindimiei.
・Phyllodesmium rudmani.
・Phyllodesmium serratum.

・Pteraeolidia semperi.

・Sakuraeolis enosimensis.
・Sakuraeolis gerberina.
・Sakuraeolis gujaratica.
・Sakuraeolis gujaratica.
・Sakuraeolis nungunoides.
・Sakuraeolis sakuracea.

・Setoeolis inconspicua.

・Subcuthona pallida.

・Cuthona actinosa.
・Trinchesia akibai.
・Trinchesia anulata.
・Trinchesia beta.
・Trinchesia alpha.
・Cuthona divae.
・Trinchesia diversicolor.
・Cuthona kanga.
・Trinchesia ornata.
・Catriona pinnifera.
・Cuthona poritophages.
・Trinchesia puellula.
・Trinchesia pupillae.
・Cuthona purpureoanulata.
・Trinchesia sibogae.
・Trinchesia sp. 1.
・Cuthona sp. 2.
・Trinchesia sp. 2.
・Cuthona sp. 4.
・Cuthona sp. 5.
・Cuthona sp. 6.
・Cuthona sp. 8.
・Cuthona viridis.
・Cuthona yamasui.

・Phestilla lugubris.
・Phestilla melanobrachia.
・Phestilla minor.

・Tergipes sp. 1.

・Fiona pinnata.

・Diacria trispinosa.

・Clione elegantissima.


Marine Diving web「ウミウシの見分け方」




Ocean Blueu 海の世界をより知るためのコンテンツサイト「海の宝石ウミウシの生態」

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Rikejo「海の宝石 ウミウシは、海の中にいるから美しいって知っていましたか?」

アクアリウム初心者向けメディア Wicture「ウミウシの基礎知識と種類について知ろう!」−slug/


Bun-ichi Nature Web Magazine「雌雄同体のウミウシはどうやって子孫を残すのか?」

Pet Pedia「海のカラフルな変わり者、ウミウシの飼い方」



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC「光合成ウミウシが激減、危機的状況、研究に支障も」